Hand: Alterations (190v–96v), BL Royal 2.B.v

Alterations (190v–96v)
BL Royal 2.B.v
Saec. xi

Stokes, English Vernacular Script, ca 990–ca 1035, Vol. 2 (PhD Thesis, University of Cambridge, 2006)

The alterations vary somewhat in aspect, perhaps because of changes of hand, but perhaps also because of the space-restrictions imposed by the need to squeeze text between lines. Ascenders are generally longer than minims and can be split, tapering, or wedged. Descenders are straight and can be longer than, as long as, or shorter than minims. Minims have approach-strokes and can have rising feet. Flat-topped a is found quite frequently, though sometimes with a rising top, the left side sometimes turned out, and the letter sometimes horned; round a also appears, whether by design or because it was a flat-topped form written quickly. A rounder form of a was used in æ, the hook of which is low and small, the tongue rising, and the tip of the tongue usually hooked down. The back of d is usually short, straight, and angled at about 45°, although it can be curved over to the left and can be almost bilinear. Round e is found, the hook and tongue much like those of æ, and a small gap is often found between the hook and the body leaving a slightly open top. The body of e is also often laid-back, and this, combined with the strokes not always meeting properly, can give the letter a horn of sorts. The tongue of f is short and the hook branches from close to the base-line. The top of g is flat and long; the mid-section is small, starting slightly left of centre and angled down and left, then turns sharply to the horizontal at the base-line and extends to the far edge of the top-stroke; the tail curves around in a wide loop which is normally closed but can be slightly open. The shoulders of h, m, n, and r are not especially rounded and can branch from below cue-height. Long and low s are found without apparent distinction, long s even appearing finally. The hook of low s is fairly angular and branches from about mid-height. The conventional distinction was largely followed between þ and ð. The back of ð is long, straight, and angled at about 60°; the cross-stroke is hooked down on the right and barely passes through the back. Straight-limbed, dotted y was used throughout, the tail straight, the right branch hooked left, and the left branch sometimes hooked left and sometimes short and straight. The top of 7 is quite short and the descender angled left.

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